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New Research – “Too Much Nostalgia? A Decennial Reflection on the Heritage Classic Ice Hockey Event”

I am pleased to announce the publication of a research note in the journal Events Management titled “Too Much Nostalgia? A Decennial Reflection on the Heritage Classic Ice Hockey Event.”

From the abstract:

This research note explores the legacy of the Heritage Classic, an outdoor ice hockey event held in Edmonton, Canada in November 2003. The event explicitly and successfully evoked nostalgia for former players, past teams, rural environments, and the egalitarian nature of childhood games, becoming a major international media and tourism event as well as the template for numerous outdoor ice hockey events held around the world. It also provided the Edmonton Oilers hockey club and the event’s organizers with both emotional and economic capital at a time when the franchise required support. However, the success of the Heritage Classic meant that the National Hockey League (NHL) and other hockey leagues would organize subsequent outdoor hockey events, thereby minimizing the ability for individual franchises to benefit from their heritage as the Oilers did. Furthermore, little was done locally to build on the success of the Heritage Classic, while the proliferation of similar events globally may have minimized both the media and tourism impacts of subsequent outdoor hockey games.

This research note is a follow-up to my 2006 article “Place Identity and Sport Tourism: The Case of the Heritage Classic Ice Hockey Event” (co-authored with Dr. Tom Hinch of the University of Alberta) published in Current Issues in Tourism.  Given the proliferation of outdoor ice hockey events, both in North America and Europe, it seemed time to reflect on the legacy of the event that started it all.

Should you not have access to Event Management through an institutional subscription, please drop me a line and I would be happy to share a copy of this research note with you.  Feel free to contact me by email, on Twitter, or by direct message on Facebook.


Heritage and the Empty Stadium

There was an interesting blog post written by Dave Cournoyer at his site recently about the future of Rexall Place in Edmonton, Canada.  For the initiated, Rexall Place (as it is currently named) was opened in the mid 1970s and, though it has hosted numerous concerts, performances, and sporting events in its 40 year history, it is most famous for being the long-time home of the Edmonton Oilers of the National Hockey League (NHL).  In particular, the arena housed the Oilers during their “Glory Years” in the 1980s and early 1990s when, led by hockey superstars Wayne Gretzky, Mark Messier, Paul Coffey, and others, the team won five Stanley Cup championships in seven seasons.  The arena, arguably, has significant heritage value, in large part because of the Edmonton Oilers, though perhaps to a lesser extent because of aspects such as its architectural value, it role in other sporting events such as the annual Canadian Finals Rodeo, and its historical connection to the Northlands fair grounds.

From a individual view, Rexall Place has significant personal heritage value to me.  For decades, it was the place I went to see hockey games with my family.  In fact, I actually witnessed two of the Oilers Stanley Cup championships – in 1984 and 1988 – from our family’s season tickets in Section K, Row 14.  A number of years ago, while completing my doctorate at the University of Alberta, I got to play hockey on the “hallowed ice” of Rexall Place – which was exciting and thrilling and wonderful, even to a grown man.  Rexall Place was also where I went to concerts with friends, saw wrestling cards as a teenager, and had my father take me to an occasional monster truck show.  Simply put, the arena was part of the landscape of my growing up and living in Edmonton, and I suspect it has become an integral part of many Edmontonians’ personal heritage narratives over the past forty years.


In 2016, the Edmonton Oilers will be leaving Rexall Place and moving to a brand new downtown arena. Cournoyer’s blog post explores some thoughts and issues associated with what happens to Rexall Place after the Oilers move.  As Cournoyer points out, there hasn’t been much thought about this issue, and argues that local residents have not been consulted as to the arena’s future or how the arena might be used after the Oilers leave.

I would add that, part of the consultation about the future of Rexall Place ought to address and assess it’s heritage value, in particular whether the arena’s heritage ought to be recognized and how this heritage recognition would take place.

Empty stadiums and arenas, particularly those with a clear heritage value, pose some very interesting challenges.  I argued, in my recent paper “Sport, heritage, and Tourism” in the Journal of Heritage Tourism that, perhaps what makes sport heritage unique is its link to a sense of perpetual play and performance:

…sport heritage appears to be a very distinct form of heritage, perhaps because of its broad dissemination and consumption, though perhaps more because of its corporal nature.  We have to continue to play sport, or support those who play, in order to create future sport heritage. The fact that sport heritage often does not fossilize, that it must continue to be made and remade through play and performance, is perhaps what gives it a distinctive place in the heritage and heritage tourism landscape.”

What this may mean for empty stadiums, in fact, is that they are essentially dead landscapes; that perhaps the heritage isn’t in the building itself but the relationship between the building/landscape, the spectators, and the game/performance.  Without games being played – in essence, generating new heritage – the buildings themselves may have limited heritage value.

Recognizing the heritage value of empty stadiums and arenas has taken different forms, with different levels of success.  In situ preservation is probably the least feasible option. Leaving aside ancient sporting monuments, such as the Colosseum in Rome, preservation for preservation’s sake would appear unlikely for any stadium.  There are places like Rickwood Field – the oldest baseball stadium in the United States – in Birmingham, Alabama which does not have a core tenant and is probably the best example of preservation for preservation’s sake.  That said, the stadium hosts dozens of events each year, from college baseball games and tournaments to memorabilia shows, so it is hardly a “mothballed” stadium.

Adaptive reuse of heritage stadiums and arenas is a popular option.  Both the Montreal Forum and Maple Leaf Gardens have incorporated numerous heritage elements of the old arenas into new retail, real estate, and education spaces.  However, adaptive reuse is not always an option.  Tiger Stadium in Detroit was slated for a real estate redevelopment that would have incorporated the old stadium in the development, but plans fell through and the stadium was demolished.  Frequently, the old stadium sat adjacent to the new stadium, so some form of heritage markers were often used to denote where the previous stadium was after demolition. The “old” Yankee Stadium in New York is now a park next to new Yankee Stadium, and Fulton County Stadium is parking for the new Turner Field in Atlanta, with both examples denoting important markers from the old stadium in the new space (e.g.: location of home plate, etc.)  Sometimes, artefacts from the old building are incorporated into the new building.  The scoreboard from the old Omni Coliseum in Atlanta is situated in the foyer of the new Phillips Arena, for example.

Of course, many old arenas simply continue on without their core tenants, or perhaps find a different – and often lower tier – sports tenant.  The Pacific Coliseum in Vancouver, once the home of the NHL’s Vancouver Canucks, continues as a concert venue, a site for the 2010 Olympic Winter Games, and is the home of the Vancouver Giants of the Western Hockey League (WHL), a junior developmental hockey league.  As such, how the venue’s heritage is preserved or recognized may change as well.

In the discussions on the future of Rexall Place, the heritage of the venue should be raised – and, depending on the future use of the building, how the heritage is recognized will be a key issue.  I also think that the heritage of the venue isn’t just the Oilers, but encompasses many different forms – including personal heritages.  I would imagine that the venue will end up in some sort of adaptive reuse project – I simply can’t imagine it being preserved in situ, nor can I see it continue without its core tenant given the population size of Edmonton.  That said, I hope the good citizens of my former hometown consider a broad range of cases in how to use the venue going forward while still recognizing and acknowledging its heritage value.

Site Review – The Montreal Canadiens Hall of Fame

Few teams can match the heritage of the Montreal Canadiens.  I would argue that, aside from perhaps the New York Yankees, the “Habs” (an oft’ used nickname for the team; short for “Les Habitants”) perhaps possess one of the most rich and recognizable heritages in North American sport.  One need not be a Habs fan to admire the team – not only have they been one of the most successful franchises in terms of championships in North American professional sports, the have also been home to some of the most famous players in hockey history: Vezina, Morenz, Harvey, Richard, Plante, LaFleur, Dryden, Robinson, Roy…to name just a few.  They are also a cultural touchstone, often uniting – though, sometimes, dividing – the city’s population. 

Given the team’s long and important history, it is perhaps strange that the a hall of fame is relatively new.  This may be in part because the team moved buildings from the Forum (a beloved arena and a hockey shrine if there ever was one) to the Bell (nee: Molson) Centre in 1996 and that a hall of fame wasn’t a priority until recently.  However, given the wonderful collection of artefacts, memorabilia, and team displays, I’m certainly glad that they opened this museum.  It is an excellent team/corporate museum, nicely balancing between nostalgia, memory, history, and culture.  Like most any team museum, the narratives don’t overtly dabble in politics, and their is very little in terms of dissonance (it is triumphalist, indeed – few mentions of some truly awful seasons over the past couple of decades).  However, these are forgiven, as the sheer weight of importance of some of the artefacts make this museum rival – and often surpass – the Hockey Hall of Fame in Toronto.  This is no mere team museum, my friends.



One of the interesting elements of the displays is that it takes the visitors’ knowledge for granted.  Indeed, it expects that the visitor knows some of the famous players, games, and seasons.  In some ways, I didn’t mind this – overt interpretation can sometimes be intrusive and, in this case, may have taken away from some of the power of the artefacts themselves.  Take, for example, the case that greets visitors immediately upon entering the Hall:



Any hockey fan – heck, many sports fans – only need to see the Number 9 on the back to get a sense of awe and, for me at least, shivers.  Indeed, the jersey (vestments is, perhaps, a better word) of Maurice “The Rocket” Richard – the most famous cultural symbol of the Montreal Canadiens – is the visitor’s first encounter.  For those with the cultural capital to read and decode this text, this is gives the museum a sense of gravitas – there is important stuff in here.  This is more than just hockey.  Come, be close to these relics, and remember.  Je me souviens, as it were. Subtle, political, and powerful.

There are a few brave choices as well.  The visitor also encounters some very overt nostalgia with regards to the Forum which, in some ways, challenges the legitimacy of the Bell Centre as the home of the Habs.  Perhaps enough time has passed and fans have settled into the idea of the new arena but, still, to have numerous displays to the old, beloved rink was surprising.



Again, the Habs have always been about more than hockey.  Famously, in their dressing room they have a quote from McCrae’s poem In Flanders Fields along with pictures of all of the former team captains:

To you from failing hands we throw the torch; be yours to hold it high

There is, of course, irony in using a First World War poem given that conscription was a very controversial practice in francophone Canada.  Still, the idea of connecting the team to something more than just sport is interesting and points, again, to the broader cultural impact of the Habs:



Of course, for a quasi-retired goaltender like me, a Canadiens museum is a point of pilgrimage.  Simply put, some of the greatest goalies in hockey history were Habs.  



Again, there was an implicit trust that the museum narrative placed in the visitor.  The museum knew it was important, and didn’t attempt to interpret the galleries for the non-supporter/non-fan.  I am all for the “new museology” and dialogue and co-creation, etc, but it was nice to be able to see the mask of Ken Dryden, know about him, his accomplishments, his biography, his books, and be lost within my own acquired memories of him without an audio guide or intrusive interpretive panel dictating my connection to the artefact.  Calling it spiritual might be a touch overboard, but it was something close to it.