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New Research – “Too Much Nostalgia? A Decennial Reflection on the Heritage Classic Ice Hockey Event”

I am pleased to announce the publication of a research note in the journal Events Management titled “Too Much Nostalgia? A Decennial Reflection on the Heritage Classic Ice Hockey Event.”

From the abstract:

This research note explores the legacy of the Heritage Classic, an outdoor ice hockey event held in Edmonton, Canada in November 2003. The event explicitly and successfully evoked nostalgia for former players, past teams, rural environments, and the egalitarian nature of childhood games, becoming a major international media and tourism event as well as the template for numerous outdoor ice hockey events held around the world. It also provided the Edmonton Oilers hockey club and the event’s organizers with both emotional and economic capital at a time when the franchise required support. However, the success of the Heritage Classic meant that the National Hockey League (NHL) and other hockey leagues would organize subsequent outdoor hockey events, thereby minimizing the ability for individual franchises to benefit from their heritage as the Oilers did. Furthermore, little was done locally to build on the success of the Heritage Classic, while the proliferation of similar events globally may have minimized both the media and tourism impacts of subsequent outdoor hockey games.

This research note is a follow-up to my 2006 article “Place Identity and Sport Tourism: The Case of the Heritage Classic Ice Hockey Event” (co-authored with Dr. Tom Hinch of the University of Alberta) published in Current Issues in Tourism.  Given the proliferation of outdoor ice hockey events, both in North America and Europe, it seemed time to reflect on the legacy of the event that started it all.

Should you not have access to Event Management through an institutional subscription, please drop me a line and I would be happy to share a copy of this research note with you.  Feel free to contact me by email, on Twitter, or by direct message on Facebook.

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Heritage and the Empty Stadium

There was an interesting blog post written by Dave Cournoyer at his site daveberta.ca recently about the future of Rexall Place in Edmonton, Canada.  For the initiated, Rexall Place (as it is currently named) was opened in the mid 1970s and, though it has hosted numerous concerts, performances, and sporting events in its 40 year history, it is most famous for being the long-time home of the Edmonton Oilers of the National Hockey League (NHL).  In particular, the arena housed the Oilers during their “Glory Years” in the 1980s and early 1990s when, led by hockey superstars Wayne Gretzky, Mark Messier, Paul Coffey, and others, the team won five Stanley Cup championships in seven seasons.  The arena, arguably, has significant heritage value, in large part because of the Edmonton Oilers, though perhaps to a lesser extent because of aspects such as its architectural value, it role in other sporting events such as the annual Canadian Finals Rodeo, and its historical connection to the Northlands fair grounds.

From a individual view, Rexall Place has significant personal heritage value to me.  For decades, it was the place I went to see hockey games with my family.  In fact, I actually witnessed two of the Oilers Stanley Cup championships – in 1984 and 1988 – from our family’s season tickets in Section K, Row 14.  A number of years ago, while completing my doctorate at the University of Alberta, I got to play hockey on the “hallowed ice” of Rexall Place – which was exciting and thrilling and wonderful, even to a grown man.  Rexall Place was also where I went to concerts with friends, saw wrestling cards as a teenager, and had my father take me to an occasional monster truck show.  Simply put, the arena was part of the landscape of my growing up and living in Edmonton, and I suspect it has become an integral part of many Edmontonians’ personal heritage narratives over the past forty years.

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In 2016, the Edmonton Oilers will be leaving Rexall Place and moving to a brand new downtown arena. Cournoyer’s blog post explores some thoughts and issues associated with what happens to Rexall Place after the Oilers move.  As Cournoyer points out, there hasn’t been much thought about this issue, and argues that local residents have not been consulted as to the arena’s future or how the arena might be used after the Oilers leave.

I would add that, part of the consultation about the future of Rexall Place ought to address and assess it’s heritage value, in particular whether the arena’s heritage ought to be recognized and how this heritage recognition would take place.

Empty stadiums and arenas, particularly those with a clear heritage value, pose some very interesting challenges.  I argued, in my recent paper “Sport, heritage, and Tourism” in the Journal of Heritage Tourism that, perhaps what makes sport heritage unique is its link to a sense of perpetual play and performance:

…sport heritage appears to be a very distinct form of heritage, perhaps because of its broad dissemination and consumption, though perhaps more because of its corporal nature.  We have to continue to play sport, or support those who play, in order to create future sport heritage. The fact that sport heritage often does not fossilize, that it must continue to be made and remade through play and performance, is perhaps what gives it a distinctive place in the heritage and heritage tourism landscape.”

What this may mean for empty stadiums, in fact, is that they are essentially dead landscapes; that perhaps the heritage isn’t in the building itself but the relationship between the building/landscape, the spectators, and the game/performance.  Without games being played – in essence, generating new heritage – the buildings themselves may have limited heritage value.

Recognizing the heritage value of empty stadiums and arenas has taken different forms, with different levels of success.  In situ preservation is probably the least feasible option. Leaving aside ancient sporting monuments, such as the Colosseum in Rome, preservation for preservation’s sake would appear unlikely for any stadium.  There are places like Rickwood Field – the oldest baseball stadium in the United States – in Birmingham, Alabama which does not have a core tenant and is probably the best example of preservation for preservation’s sake.  That said, the stadium hosts dozens of events each year, from college baseball games and tournaments to memorabilia shows, so it is hardly a “mothballed” stadium.

Adaptive reuse of heritage stadiums and arenas is a popular option.  Both the Montreal Forum and Maple Leaf Gardens have incorporated numerous heritage elements of the old arenas into new retail, real estate, and education spaces.  However, adaptive reuse is not always an option.  Tiger Stadium in Detroit was slated for a real estate redevelopment that would have incorporated the old stadium in the development, but plans fell through and the stadium was demolished.  Frequently, the old stadium sat adjacent to the new stadium, so some form of heritage markers were often used to denote where the previous stadium was after demolition. The “old” Yankee Stadium in New York is now a park next to new Yankee Stadium, and Fulton County Stadium is parking for the new Turner Field in Atlanta, with both examples denoting important markers from the old stadium in the new space (e.g.: location of home plate, etc.)  Sometimes, artefacts from the old building are incorporated into the new building.  The scoreboard from the old Omni Coliseum in Atlanta is situated in the foyer of the new Phillips Arena, for example.

Of course, many old arenas simply continue on without their core tenants, or perhaps find a different – and often lower tier – sports tenant.  The Pacific Coliseum in Vancouver, once the home of the NHL’s Vancouver Canucks, continues as a concert venue, a site for the 2010 Olympic Winter Games, and is the home of the Vancouver Giants of the Western Hockey League (WHL), a junior developmental hockey league.  As such, how the venue’s heritage is preserved or recognized may change as well.

In the discussions on the future of Rexall Place, the heritage of the venue should be raised – and, depending on the future use of the building, how the heritage is recognized will be a key issue.  I also think that the heritage of the venue isn’t just the Oilers, but encompasses many different forms – including personal heritages.  I would imagine that the venue will end up in some sort of adaptive reuse project – I simply can’t imagine it being preserved in situ, nor can I see it continue without its core tenant given the population size of Edmonton.  That said, I hope the good citizens of my former hometown consider a broad range of cases in how to use the venue going forward while still recognizing and acknowledging its heritage value.

30 Years

Between travelling and work, I missed a very important sports anniversary last week:

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May 19 was the 30th anniversary of the Edmonton Oilers first Stanley Cup Championship. Beyond the fact that, as a nine-year-old hockey-crazed Edmontonian, I adored the Oilers (I recall praying that they would win the Cup that year, so that I could listen to the games in bed before I went to sleep) and knew every player’s stats, number, hometown, date of birth, favourite food, and brand of hockey stick. I also got to attend a good many games, as my father had Oilers season tickets.  So, as fate and circumstances would have it, my father and I were in Section K, Row 14, Seats 3&4 when Dave Lumley scored into an empty net for the 5-2 win and 4-1 series victory over the New York Islanders.  I remember the pre-game, and how loud it was, as I blew into my air-horn/vuvuzela contraption.  I remember being very nervous about the game, as the Islanders goalie Billy Smith still seemed to be invincible and we were without our starting netminder, Grant Fuhr, having instead Andy Moog in net (backed up by Mike Zainer – a name that’s probably won me a bar bet or two).  I don’t remember much of the game, other than the end – Lumley’s goal, the crowd spilling onto the ice at the final buzzer.  I remember getting hit on the head with a red streamer, then grabbing it and trying to throw it on the ice myself.  I don’t remember leaving the arena, other than my dad driving us through the celebration on Jasper Avenue in downtown Edmonton, thankfully exiting before we got caught in the mayhem (and, as memory serves, an overturned bus or two).

One of the aspects that I remember most about that event, and that era of Oilers hockey for that matter, was how inevitable it all seemed.  Of course, I had no context for how monumental that championship was – and the four others that followed over the next six seasons.  My brother and I simply felt that we would take turns going to watch championship games with one or the other of our parents, and that was just the way it would be.  As it turned out, we’d never return to those halcyon days again – perhaps why I have this nostalgia now.  Indeed, in some ways, I can thank (or blame, as the case may be) the memories of May 19, 1984 for my interest in sport heritage, as my first major research study was about a nostalgia-based event based on that team. In any event, I didn’t want to let the moment pass without some acknowledgment.  Sport can play a vital role in our personal biography and that night, 30 years ago, was certainly a marker in mine.

The Uses of Sport Heritage – Help or Hinderance?

The debate regarding the uses of sport heritage – in particular how a team’s decorated past is used or interpreted in the present – has continued in the popular press.  I recently discussed how two National Hockey League teams – The Edmonton Oilers and the Toronto Maple Leafs – decided to rid their dressing room spaces of “ghosts”, as it were, from past championship teams, seeing these as both a burden and barrier for current players.  Now, representatives from other teams are weighing in and discussing whether the recognition of past success is a help or hinderance.  In particular, I was interested by this view in the Edmonton Journal by Kavis Reed, the coach of the Edmonton Eskimos whose team, historically, has been one of the Canadian Football League’s most successful franchises:

“It’s very important to have that balance (with the present and future of a team) and have that tradition,” said Reed. “It’s important because it identifies who you are, but you also have to make certain that you’re cognizant of the fact that you can’t relive history.

“I kind of liken it to passing down a family quilt and a certain generation is asked to sew their patch in. I see it that way.

“You can look back and see all of the other patches that makes that quilt and now how do you add your patch into it? What’s different about yours? Is yours red versus a couple of blues and a purple?”

“History is extremely important, but we have to be a part of that history and embrace that history by focusing on now and getting better and showing that this franchise and its history is not one that is lost,” he said.

Sport heritage, I suppose, is no different from other heritage in that it can promote stagnation – a view Robert Hewison suggested 25 years ago in The Heritage Industry.  Hewison’s argument is that societies can often times wallow in a glorious (if imagined) past rather than face the sometimes harsh realities of the present and future.  He suggests that these societies “produce” heritage rather than try to adapt and change.  Perhaps this is what was happening in the Oilers and Maple Leafs organizations, that the tie to the past was so strong that it overwhelmed the present.

However, I like that the Eskimos – through Coach Reed – see the team’s heritage, not as an end in and of itself, but as part of a contemporary process.  In some ways, I am reminded of Laurajane Smith’s The Uses of Heritage where one of the key arguments is that heritage, to paraphrase Reed’s analogy, is not the quilt but how the quilt is part of a larger practice of meaning-making – of which those in the present play a significant role in terms of interpretation, performance, and practice.    

I find this a fascinating debate – and, perhaps plays out how heritage is used and interpreted by different levels of an organization.  I have little doubt that, in terms of marketing or merchandise sales, heritage will continue to play a role.  However, it is interesting to see how the uses and meanings of heritage are, perhaps, being reinterpreted in terms of on-field/ice performance.